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Abstract: Bolivia registers internationally sensational economic growth rates. From 1998 to 2005 the Gross National Product increased by 2.9%, from 2006 to 2009 by 5%, and in 2013 by an estimated 6.5%. Though economic growth is linked to new socio-political measures, economic growth also – as is the main argument of my contribution – goes along with severe socio-ecological implications for the society as a whole, intensifies existing power relations and (re)produces societal tensions. In my contribution, I will first show the material base of economic growth through an analysis of the fiscal base of the state – here I choose the state economy and not the GNP as an indicator, because current tensions arise especially in the context of state acting. I will highlight the significance of natural resources, particularly the natural gas and mining sector. Then I will specify the socio-ecological consequences, power relations and societal tensions they imply.