Media library

Abstract: This paper analyses the distribution of CO2 emissions over households in Germany, identifies their socio-economic drivers and discusses the policy implications. On the basis of an environmentally extended input output model, the CO2 intensities for consumption-based emissions from different categories are calculated and allocated to the expenditure data of a representative survey of 44.088 households. Using descriptive statistics, the analysis shows that emissions are strongly concentrated on a consumption basis. We also find significant emission differences between certain socio-economic groups including household type, social status, spatial location, gender and income deciles. Multivariate regression analysis shows that income and household size are the most important drivers of total and indirect emissions. For home energy and transport emissions, large living spaces, higher education and professional training are equally important drivers. The results suggest that in a degrowth economy, not every household has to equally reduce its emissions to a sustainable level. On the basis of socio-economic factors and household groups, we show possible levers to mitigate CO2 emissions on a consumption basis.