Abstract: This paper presents the findings from doctoral research into social sustainability practice of Australian local government. It is argued that the social pillar of sustainability has received less attention in research and practice than environmental and economic pillars of sustainability. The research contends there is a leading role for local government to play in incorporating social sustainability in practice for the benefit of local communities and broader sustainability objectives. The research adopted a conceptual framework for social sustainability comprising four components – engaged governance, social capital, social infrastructure and social justice and equity. The framework was used for designing an online survey and interviews which were conducted with council participants from around the country. Findings from the research will provide insight into how social sustainability is considered and implemented in practice, the motivations and impediments to incorporating SS, how councils are accountable for SS and current social issues facing local government areas. Recommendations are made on ways to improve social sustainability practice and outcomes, and the suitability of the conceptual framework.