Abstract: The garbage crisis in Campania, a region of the Southern Italy, is an example of enviromental transformation. It’s a human – made enviromental degradation, which determined a sudden drop in the health condition of local inhabitants, with a considerable increase in the number of deaths caused by cancer, respiratory illnesses, and also genetic malformations. Since the mid-1990s the Italian government declared the state of emergency for waste disposal in Campania. The local demonstrations and direct actions in various areas of Campania, can be considered an adaptation pathway. In the last few years, civil responses have increased and indignation mounted among people from different sectors of the population. Occupations of landfills, petitions to local courts and marches have tried to break the silence and to call for the attention of national and regional governments. During a demonstration against the Giugliano thermovalorizor, a woman said: “Before people leave Naples and Campania, because of unemployment; today people leave Naples and Campania because of ecological disaster. They don’t want to die”(28/09/ 2013).