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From the introduction: This paper provides a clear framework of sustainable development, which helps to navigate through the increasingly muddled discussion, and to identify policy priorities for sustainable development pathways. The paper reiterates the call for more inclusive and greener economic growth and to this end argues for two distinct types of decoupling: Efforts to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, depletion and destruction – which are the focus of the literature –will need to be complemented by efforts to decouple social progress from economic growth. But be cause both types of decoupling confront limits, sustainable development also critically depends on measures to address and harness demographic change. Without considering population dynamics, we cannot fully understand the challenge of sustainable development, and without addressing and harnessing these dynamics, we cannot develop viable solutions to this challenge. The paper argues that demography is not destiny and that demographic trends can be shaped through rights-based and gender-responsive policies.