Abstract: A resource efficient society should provide high well-being at a low cost to the environment while preserving the natural system/natural resources for future generations. Traditionally, well-being has always been assessed on the national level. In contrast, the economic system consists of specific sector with specific functions for the society ranging from providing food to education to health services. The DESIRE project will test the assumption that the performance of sectors is more relevant for attainment of welfare of nations and the well-being of its citizens than the gross output of economies (GDP) or value added of sectors. This calls for other measures of sector performance than value added. Resource use and environmental impacts of sectors can then be related to this new sector performance measures and thus allow evaluating the resource efficiency of services to society provided by the sectors. This will further contribute to the discussion in the “Resource efficiency beyond GDP” special session.